Resource > Scientific publications >
Application of a gut–liver-on-a-chip device and mechanistic modeling to the quantitative in vitro pharmacokinetic study of mycophenolate mofetil
Filed under: ADME, Drug absorption, and Drug metabolism
Milani et al., 2022
Microphysiological systems (MPS) consisting of multiple linked organ-on-a-chip (OoC) components are highly promising tools with potential to provide more relevant in vitro to in vivo translation of drug disposition, efficacy and toxicity. A gut–liver OoC system was employed with Caco2 cells in co-culture with HT29 cells in the intestinal compartment and single donor primary hepatocytes in the hepatic compartment for the investigation of intestinal permeability, metabolism (intestinal and hepatic) and potential interplay of those processes. The prodrug mycophenolate mofetil was tested for quantitative evaluation of the gut–liver OoC due to the contribution of both gut and liver in its metabolism. Conversion of mycophenolate mofetil to active drug mycophenolic acid and further metabolism to a glucuronide metabolite was assessed over time in the gut apical, gut basolateral and liver compartments. Mechanistic modelling of experimental data was performed to estimate clearance and permeability parameters for the prodrug, active drug and glucuronide metabolite. Integration of gut–liver OoC data with in silico modelling allowed investigation of the complex combination of intestinal and hepatic processes, which is not possible with standard single tissue in vitro systems. A comprehensive evaluation of the mechanistic model, including structural model and parameter identifiability and global sensitivity analysis, enabled a robust experimental design and estimation of in vitro pharmacokinetic parameters. We propose that similar methodologies may be applied to other multi-organ microphysiological systems used for drug metabolism studies or wherever quantitative knowledge of changing drug concentration with time enables better understanding of biological effect.